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17 November 2013 @ 11:04 pm
IREGULAR ㄷ, ㅂ, ㄹ and others  
Hey guys, I've been learning 학극어 for about three months now and the most confusing thing is how to treat the irregular consonants when conjugating verbs with various ending like 에요 and 있어요. Can anyone help me out??
 
 
 
nothxk0dama on December 31st, 2013 02:54 pm (UTC)
Give an example.
a sky full of lighters: follow the lightsmetafictionally on January 3rd, 2014 12:33 pm (UTC)
I suspect OP might be referring to irregular verbs, not necessarily with 예요 and 있어요... i.e. 어렵다, 걷다 etc?
tcabintcabin on January 9th, 2014 12:30 am (UTC)
Hope this is helpful -

ㅅ Irregular: ㅅ drops
짓다 (to build) - 지었어요 - 지어요
Common words that rule doesn't apply:
웃다 (to laugh) - 벗다 (to take off clothes)
씻다 (to wash) - 씻었어요 - 씻어요

ㄷ irregular: ㄷ changes to ㄹ
걷다 (to walk) - 걸었어요 - 걸어요
Some words that rule doesn't apply:
받다 (to get/receive) - 묻다 (to bury)
닫다 (to close)

ㅂ Irregular: ㅂ changes to 우
춥다 (to be cold) - 추웠어요 - 추워요
Some words that rule doesn't apply:
좁다 (to be narrow) - 입다 (to wear)

ㅡ Irregular: ㅡ replaced with ㅓ/ㅏ - based on vowel in the second last syllable
잠그다 (to lock) - 잠갔어요 - 잠가요
예쁘다 (to be pretty) - 예뻤어요 - 예뻐요

르 Irregular:르 also gets changed to either 러 or 라 (depending on if you are adding 어 or 아)
고르다 (to choose) - 골랐어요 - 골라요
마르다 (to be thin) - 말랐어요 - 말라요

KoreanWiki Project provides additional examples and rule exceptions- just search irregular verbs; Talk to Me in Korean is another great resource

Happy studying ^__^

dsin13dsin13 on January 17th, 2014 09:21 am (UTC)
Thanks so much for the irregulars, it helps so much to see them all in one place
dsin13dsin13 on January 17th, 2014 09:20 am (UTC)
Sorry guys havent been around.. I didn't know it at the time but my problem was with understanding tenses,, i know 있어요 is present n one can use 가요 to express future though there are others that i dont know and also how does one express the past
tcabintcabin on January 26th, 2014 06:43 pm (UTC)
음~ Not sure if I'm truly understanding your question but hope this is helpful nonetheless -

이다: to be - present tense
word ending in a consonant add ~이에요
그 것은 사진이에요 - That thing is a picture
저는 선생님이에요 - I am a teacher

word ending in a vowel add ~예요
이 사람은 저의 누나예요 - This (person) is my sister
저는 의사예요 - I am a doctor

이다: to be - past tense
word ending in a consonant add ~이었어요
그 것은 큰 비밀이었어요 - That was a big secret
저는 선생님이었어요 - I was a teacher

word ending in a vowel add ~였어요
저는 의사였어요 - I was a doctor
저는 나쁜 애기였어요 - I was a bad baby

As for present tense being used for future:
This may happen if there is a word within the sentence that implies the future, like 내일 (tomorrow)
내일 학교에 가요. - I will go to school tomorrow.

One can also use future tenses -
~(으)ㄹ거에요: 내일 학교에 갈 거애요 - I will go to school tomorrow.
~겠어요 (express personal opinion about the future): 내일 학교에 가겠어요 - I will go to school tomorrow (I intend to go to school tomorrow)

Sorry if this is information overload - Sometimes I get excited when explaining grammar

Take care

dsin13dsin13 on January 28th, 2014 06:59 pm (UTC)
tcabin your just the best, wish you were my teach..
tcabintcabin on February 8th, 2014 10:30 pm (UTC)
Glad I was helpful - The true thanks goes to my teachers...I've had some amazing teachers over the years. Best of luck on your Korean studies

Edited at 2014-02-08 10:30 pm (UTC)